Vehicle identification numbers
When ordering spare parts it is essential to give full details of your car to the storeman. He will want to know the commission, car, and engine numbers. When ordering parts for the transmission unit or body it is also necessary to quote the transmission casing and body numbers.
Commission number: Stamped on a plate fixed to the right-hand wing valance.
Car number: Located on a plate mounted between the radiator and the left-hand wing valance.
Engine number Stamped on the cylinder block or on a metal plate fixed to the right-hand side of the cylinder block.
Transmission casing assembly: Stamped on a facing provided on the casting just below the starter motor.
Body number: Stamped on a metal plate fixed to the grille stopper.
Tools and working facilities
A selection of good tools is a fundamental requirement for anyone contemplating the maintenance and repair of a motor vehicle. For the owner who does not possess any, their purchase will prove a considerable expense, offsetting some of the savings made by doing-it-yourself. However, provided that the tools purchased are of good quality, they will last for many years and prove an extremely worthwhile investment.
To help the average owner to decide which tools are needed to carry out the various tasks detailed in the manual, here are three lists of tools under the following headings: Maintenance and minor repair, Repair and overhaul, and Special. The newcomer to practical mechanics should start off with the Maintenance and minor repair tool kit and confine himself to the simpler jobs around the vehicle. Then, as his confidence and experience grow, he can undertake more difficult tasks, buying extra tools as, and when, they are needed. In this way, a Maintenance and minor repair tool kit can be built-up into a Repair and overhaul tool kit over a considerable period of time without any major cash outlays. The experienced do-it-yourselfer will have a tool kit good enough for most repair and overhaul procedures and will add tools from the Special category when he feels the expense is justified by the amount of use these tools will be put to.
It is obviously not possible to cover the subject of tools fully here. For those who wish to learn more about tools and their use there is a book entitled How to Choose and Use Car Tools available.
Maintenance and minor repair tool kit
The tools given in this list should be considered as a minimum requirement if routine maintenance, servicing and minor repair operations are to be undertaken. Recommended is the purchase of combination spanners (ring one end, open-ended the other); although more expensive than open-ended ones, they do give the advantages of both types of spanner.
Combination spanners - 7/16 - 1/2 - 9/16 - 11/16 - 3/4 in AF
Adjustable spanner - 9 Inch
Spark plug spanner (with rubber insert)
Spark plug gap adjustment tool
Set of feeler gauges
Brake bleed nipple spanner
Screwdriver - 4 in long x 1/4 in dia (flat blade)
Screwdriver - 4 in long x 1/4 in dia (cross blade)
Combination pliers - 6 inch
Tyre pressure gauge
Fine emery cloth (1 sheet)
Wire brush (small)
Funnel (medium size)
Repair and overhaul tool kit
These tools are virtually essential for anyone undertaking any major repairs to a motor vehicle, and are additional to those given in the Maintenance and minor repair list. Included in this list is a comprehensive set of sockets. Although these are expensive they will be found invaluable as they are so versatile - particularly if various drives are included in the set. Recommended is the -1/2 in square-drive type, as this can be used with most proprietary torque spanners. If you cannot afford a socket set, even bought piecemeal, then inexpensive tubular box wrenches are a useful alternative. The tools in this list will occasionally need to be supplemented by tools from the Special list.
Sockets (or box spanners) to cover range in previous list
Reversible ratchet drive (for use with sockets)
Extension piece, 10 inch (for use with sockets)
Universaljoint (for use with sockets)
Torque wrench (for use with sockets)
Mole wrench - 8 inch
Ball pein hammer
Soft-faced hammer, plastic or rubber
Screwdriver - 6 in long x 5/16 in dia (flat blade)
Screwdriver - 2 in long x 5/16 in square (flat blade)
Screwdriver - 1 1/2 in long x 1/4 in dia (cross blade)
Screwdriver - 3 in long x 1/8 in dia (electricians)
Pliers - electricians side cutters
Pliers - needle nosed
Pliers - circlip (internal and external)
Cold chisel - 1/2 inch
Valve grinding tool
Selection of files
Wire brush (large)
Jack (strong scissor or hydraulic type)
The tools in this list are those which are not used regularly, are expensive to buy, or which need to be used in accordance with their manufacturers' instructions. Unless relatively difficult mechanical jobs are undertaken frequently, it will not be economic to buy many of these tools. Where this is the case, you could consider clubbing together with friends (or joining a motorists' club) to make a joint purchase, or borrowing the tools against a deposit from a local garage or tool hire specialist.
The following list contains only those tools and instruments freely available to the public, and not those special tools produced by the vehicle manufacturer specifically for its dealer network. You will find occasional references to these manufacturers' special tools in the text of the manual. Generally, an alternative method of doing the job without the vehicle manufacturers' special tool is given. However, sometimes, there is no alternative to using them. Where this is the case and the relevant tool cannot be bought or borrowed you will have to entrust the work to a franchised garage.
Valve spring compressor
Piston ring compressor
Universal hub/bearing puller
Micrometer and/or vernier gauge
Stroboscopic timing light
Dwell angle meter/tachometer
Universal electrical multi-meter
Cylinder compression gauge
Light with extension lead
For practically all tools, a tool dealer is the best source since he will have a very comprehensive range compared with the average garage or accessory shop. Having said that, accessory shops often offer excellent quality tools at discount prices, so it pays to shop around.
Remember, you don't have to buy the most expensive items on the shelf, but it is always advisable to steer clear of the very cheap tools. There are plenty of good tools around at reasonable prices, so ask the proprietor or manager of the shop for advice before making a purchase.
Care and maintenance of tools
Having purchased a reasonable tool kit, it is necessary to keep the tools in a clean serviceable condition. After use, always wipe off any dirt, grease and metal particles using a clean, dry cloth, before putting the tools away. Never leave them lying around after they have been used. A simple tool rack on the garage or workshop wall, for items such as screwdrivers and pliers is a good idea. Store all normal spanners and sockets in a metal box. Any measuring instruments, gauges, meters, etc, must be carefully stored where they cannot be damaged or become rusty.
Take a little care when tools are used. Hammer heads inevitably become marked and screwdrivers lose the keen edge on their blades from time to time. A little timely attention with emery cloth or a file will soon restore items like this to a good serviceable finish.
Not to be forgotten when discussing tools, is the workshop itself. If anything more than routine maintenance is to be carried out, some form of suitable working area becomes essential.
It is appreciated that many an owner mechanic is forced by circumstances to remove an engine or similar item, wit out the benefit of a garage or workshop. Having done this, any repairs should always be done under the cover of a roof.
Wherever possible, any dismantling should be done on a clean flat workbench or table at a suitable working height.
Any workbench needs a vice: one with a jaw opening of 4 in (100 mm) is suitable for most jobs. As mentioned previously, some clean dry storage space is also required for tools, as well as the lubricants, cleaning fluids, touch-up paints and so on which become necessary.
Another item which may be required, and which has a much more general usage, is an electric drill with a chuck capacity of at least 5/16 in (8 mm). This, together with a good range of twist drills, is virtually essential for fitting accessories such as wing mirrors and reversing lights.
Last, but not least, always keep a supply of old newspapers and clean, lint-free rags available, and try to keep any working area as clean as possible.
Jaw gap (in) . . . . . . . . Spanner size
0.250 1/4 in AF
0.276 7 mm
0.313 5/16 in AF
0.315 8 mm
0.344 11/32 in AF; 1/8 in Whitworth
0.354 9 mm
0.375 3/8 in AF
0.394 10 mm
0.433 11 mm
0.438 7/16 in AF
0.445 3/16 in Whitworth; 1/4 in BSF
0.472 12 mm
0.500 1/2 in AF
0.512 13 mm
0.525 1/4 in Whitworth; 5/16 in BSF
0.551 14 mm
0.563 9/16 in AF
0.591 15 mm
0.600 5/16 in Whitworth; 3/8 in BSF
0.625 5/8 in AF
0.630 16 mm
0.669 17 mm
0.686 11/16 in AF
0.709 18 mm
0.710 3/8 in Whitworth, 7/16 in BSF
0.748 19 mm
0.750 3/4 in AF
0.813 13/16 in AF
0.820 7/16 in Whitworth; 1/2 in BSF
0.866 22 mm
0.875 7/8 in AF
0.920 1/2 in Whitworth; 9/16 in BSF
0.938 15/16 in AF
0.945 24 mm
1.000 1 in AF
1.010 9/16 in Whitworth; 5/8 in BSF
1.024 26 mm
1.063 1 1/16 in AF; 27 mm
1.100 5/8 in Whitworth; 11/16 in BSF
1.125 1 1/8 in AF
1.181 30 mm
1.200 11/16 in Whitworth; 3/4 in BSF
1.250 1 1/4 in AF
1.260 32 mm
1.300 3/4 in Whitworth; 7/8 in BSF
1.313 1 5/16 in AF
1.390 13/16 in Whitworth; 15/16 in BSF
1.417 36 mm
1.438 1 7/16 in AF
1.480 7/8 in Whitworth; 1 in BSF
1.500 1 1/2 in AF
1.575 40 mm; 15/16 in Whitworth
1.614 41 mm
1.625 1 5/8 in AF
1.670 1 in Whitworth; 11/8 in BSF
1.688 1 11/16 in AF
1.811 46 mm
1.813 1 13/16 in AF
1.860 1 1/8 in Whitworth; 1 1/4 in BSF
1.875 1 7/8 in AF
1.969 50 mm
2.000 2 in AF
2.050 1 1/4 in Whitworth; 1 3/8 in BSF
2.165 55 mm
2.362 60 mm
Recommended lubricants and fluids
Component or system Lubricant type or specification Castrol product
1 Engine and transmission SAE 2OW/50 engine oil GTX
1a Engine and automatic transmission SAE 2OW/50 engine oil GTX
2 Steering tie-rod ball ends Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
3 Steering swivel knuckles Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
4 Upper support arm, inner pivots Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
5 Driveshaft sliding splines Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
6 Gear change shafts Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
7 Handbrake cable guide tubes; linkages
and sector pivots Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
8 Rear suspension radius arm Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
9 Rear hubs Multi-purpose grease LM Grease
Hydraulic system Brake fluid to SAEJ1703 Castrol Girling Universal Brake and Clutch fluid
Carburettor piston damper SAE 2OW/50 engine oil GTX